On top of several high-quality keynote sessions, the Raw Materials Summit 2019 offers a number of technical Parallel Sessions, i.e., small technical workshops with strong focus on innovation. Five to six invited speakers will be presenting innovative technologies, trends and results, showcasing the latest achievements in Europe and beyond, as well as results of ongoing projects of the EIT RawMaterials. The topics of the sessions are chosen to cover the most pressing technological and industrial challenges facing the raw materials sector and having an impact on the entire value chain. The content of the session is designed to cover in a balanced fashion both the six thematic areas characterizing the KIC Raw Materials, as well as the strategic Lighthouse Programme launched by our Community.
Resources: Discovery and Beyond
Resources assessment and availability, innovative exploration technologies
Day 1 - 20 May 2019 - from 15:30 to 18:00 - Room Aquamarin
Europe utilizes more than 20% of the world’s primary production of metals and minerals, but it only produces 2–3% of this amount. The continent presents and holds potential for future exploitation of available mineral resources, with opportunities for renewed, modern and juvenile exploration. Still, only 1.4% of the global exploration budget is devoted to projects in Europe. More discoveries, acceptable in terms of environmental and social impact through e.g., better engagement of communities, are needed to establish a sustainable raw material supply in Europe.
New innovative and improved technologies are needed to achieve deeper penetration, improved resolution, comprehensive characterisation of new physical parameters, improved models, ease of acquisition at lowered costs and improved data analysis and visualisation to assist fast interpretation and decision-making.
The session will provide an overview of the latest developments in exploration and primary resources assessment. Technologies enabling simultaneous measurement while drilling, to characterize in real-time or near-real time rock composition and non-invasive deep exploration methodologies will be showcased. The utilization of big data and the latest development in Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning to help gain suitable information to increase the chance to find exploitable ore deposits will also be shown, with application to specific cases.
Murray Hitzman, CEO, Director, Irish Centre for Research in Applied Geosciences
Minerals: Europe IS the Future (provisional)
Patrick Nadoll (provisional), Senior Advisor, EIT RawMaterials
Sustainable Discovery and Supply - a new Lighthouse Programme
Bo Stensgaard (Blue Jay Mining), Stefan Bernstein (GEUS)
Modern exploration technologies deployed in the harsh environment of Greenland
Richard Gloaguen, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf
You can look but you can’t touch – non-invasive exploration in Europe (and beyond)
There is a growing demand for mineral resources worldwide, and yet industry is facing increasing obstacles in obtaining public acceptance for new exploration and mining projects. Numerous recent citizen protests highlight the bad public perception of mining projects and increase the reluctance of investors to finance explorations. These difficulties will certainly increase as sensitive areas such as the Arctic or deep-sea environments are now considered. We argue that a paradigm shift is needed to improve the reputation of the industry and increase the acceptance of exploration and mining. Respect and inclusion of host communities should be at the forefront at the earliest stages of exploration. Non-invasive exploration techniques can be defined as energy efficient, low-impact technologies. They assist in the detection and mapping of mineral deposits and improve exploration targeting with minimal environmental impact, while demonstrating that industry cares about reducing disturbance to the communities and environment in which they operate. Until recently, these criteria have generally not figured significantly in mineral exploration design and planning in Europe. However, it is increasingly understood that non-invasive technologies can help to maintain the social licence to operate and consequently lower the investment risk of exploration. To demonstrate this premise, we established the EU-funded research project INFACT (Innovative, Non-Invasive and Fully Acceptable Exploration Technologies), which supports the development of innovative exploration and stakeholder engagement approaches. Our project will establish a set of permanent, accessible reference sites to trial and assess the technological and social performance of existing and emerging innovative, non-invasive exploration techniques (e.g., SQUID magnetics, muon tomography, gravity gradiometry, passive seismics, airborne long-wave hyperspectral imaging, UAV magnetics). The reference sites have a rich and diverse exploration portfolio including extensive drillhole databases and cover a broad range of geological, social and climatic conditions to cater for a wide variety of future users. We will assess both the technical merits of the methods and the opinions of local stakeholders. Ultimately, INFACT will result in a credible certification scheme for best practice mineral exploration which, it is hoped, will provide comfort and confidence to exploration decision makers, investors and civil society. Such schemes for the metal and mining industries are just emerging but will help to establish new approaches in reducing environmental impact and increasing social acceptance, thus boosting the sector in Europe.
Anders R. Persson (tbc), EPIROC
The value of measuring while drilling in mineral exploration
Mark Fawcett, IBM
The Red Lake case – accelerated exploration targeting using modern data analytics
Deep, Intelligent Mining
New technologies for mining and mining under extreme conditions
Day 2 - 21 May 2019 - from 14:30 to 18:00 - Auditorium
Despite high availability of minerals and metals in the earth’s crust, declining discovery rate and decreasing ore grade is an issue that the mining industry is facing in the recent decades. Mining often is carried out in harsh conditions, but a smart utilisation of new and innovative technologies can contribute mitigate matters related to workers safety and environmental impact of mining activities. A sustainable, intelligent mining is a vision that will contribute to increase efficiency in mining operation, lower production costs, minimize environmental impact and mining waste, ensuring at the same time safer and more attractive working conditions.
The session will cover different technological aspects, such as automation of mining equipment, innovative methodologies for noise control as well as new education platforms for the miners of the future. Also, the utilisation of platforms for earth observation to mining operation as a way to mine in a smarter fashion will be addressed. Case studies applied to real operations will be showcased.
Michael Ramström (to be confirmed), EPIROC
Automation of Mining Equipment
Marko Antila, VTT
The boost of production with advanced noise protection in harsh mining conditions
Hard rock mechanical cutting is a step forward in challenging underground mining conditions. Instead of drilling and blasting, the continuous process offers several environmental, safety, and economical benefits in harsh conditions. With continuous mining, the blasting noise does not exist, but there are other noise sources. Thus, it is vital to ensure proper noise conditions for the workers. The main noise source is the cutting process. There are also other noteworthy noise sources, such as bolting and dust extraction. The best strategy is to rank and reduce the most significant noise sources. For that, we have developed in RockVader EIT RM project a User Centric Noise Ranking method, where the human experience defines the criteria. The noise reduction is often not possible for the main noise sources. However, it is possible to reduce noise transmission and protect the operators. Due to the high noise levels, superior solutions for noise protection are required, such as cabins and Personal Protection Equipment. Proper noise conditions give several direct and indirect production benefits. The most important benefit is that skilled operators do not get strained and unfocused due to the noise, and costly mistakes are avoided. Furthermore, the advanced noise protection essentially warrants that regulations are fulfilled. Additionally, this makes mine a more attractive working place, which offers a competitive edge, both for the machinery manufacturers and the mine proprietors.
Irene Benito Rodriguez, EIT RawMaterials
RawMatCop: Investigating How Earth Observation Can Boost Mineral and Material Extraction and Environmental Impact Monitoring
Marc Borbas, Infomine
Edumine - A platform for Professional Development and Training for Mining
Minerals Processing and Materials Recycling
Increasing resource, energy and water efficiency during raw materials beneficiation
Day 1 - 20 May 2019 - from 15:30 to 18:00 - Room Rubin
Mineral processing technologies during raw materials beneficiation need to be adapted to the challenge of increasingly complex primary and secondary input materials. For Secondary resources, there are numerous potential target metals to be recovered, but only few of them will lead to profitable returns. As products get more complex with lower concentrations of target metals, the need for more efficient recovery of these compounds increases. Higher recovery yield needs to be combined with water and energy efficiency in order to meet both competitive cost and a reduced environmental impact. At the same time, the valorisation of wastes downstream the processing plant is one of the viable route if we wish to realize the circular economy principles within the minerals processing industry. The session will provide an overview of developments in different areas, including waste-to-products transformations, innovative metallurgical processes, innovative water management methodologies, low impact processing of minerals as well as control and optimisation of algorithms to increase energy efficiency.
Jean-Michel Milazzo, ERAMET Research
Go40 project: From iron and manganese oxides waste to valuable metal alloys using novel carbon sources materials
The metal industry is facing ever stringent environmental regulations leading to more and more efficient off-gas systems. These new off-gas systems generate additional by-products in the form of dusts and sludge. At the same time, the quality and scarcity of raw materials is becoming a real issue and metal producers have to maximize their resource efficiency in order to maintain their competitiveness. Therefore, a cross-sectoral consortium has been built in the frame of an EIT Raw Materials project “Go-4-0”. Its objective is to agglomerate by-products from different sectors in view of their recycling in the production of FeMn alloys . The Go-4-0 project is focused on market specifications (product, use, value) and on the technological and economic viability of the proposed recycling chain. Each step of the Go-4-0 project aims at minimizing the importance of OPEX and CAPEX for the innovative industrialization solution that will be found out. In 2016, a first market study was performed to define the best mix in terms of economic value versus process feasibility.
Laboratories results have been carried out. Several binders have been tested and optimized in order to minimize the cost of cold pre-processing while providing the required mechanical properties. Several tests have been compared in order to determine the best recycling route. The final feasibility assessment will be done in 2019 during a semi-industrial campaign using a 600 kW Smelting Arc Furnace.
Christian Binder, OUTOTEC
MONICALC (OUTOTEC): Control and Optimisation Algorithms/ Energy Saving
Paivi Kinnunen, VTT
METGROW+ Metal Recovery from Low Grade Ores and Wastes
METGROW+ creates and validates an industrially viable, flexible New Metallurgical Systems Toolbox, which allows to smartly combine pyro-, hydro-, electro-, bio-, solvo and ionometallurgical unit operations, as well as residual matrix valorisation technologies, for the valorisation of EU’s low-grade, polymetallic primary and secondary resources.
Phil Newmann, Anglo American
Darina Styriaková, Ekolive
Ecological refining of mineral raw materials as an on-site service
Low quality of local mineral deposits is caused by metallic impurities that dramatically reduce its value and usability. ekolive provides metals removal by bioleaching with zero waste economy without restriction for volume of processed raw materials (RM). Bioleaching is an alternative way of metal extraction and improving raw materials. This effective, economical and environmentally friendly innovative method enables the utilisation of local sources for high-quality demanding end-users.
•Increases resource efficiency in mineral and metallurgical processes
•Secures sustainable RM supply
•Designs solutions and closing material loops by quality enhancement of mineral raw materials
•Turns non-economic regional local deposits (including tailings) into profitable ones
•Increases the development of the local industry
Impact on the EIT RMs' value chain is on the edge between upscaling and processing, between “Mines for Modern Society-Innovative technologies for intelligent and sustainable mining” and “Develop and improve Processing-Resource efficiency and safety in mineral and metallurgical processes”. This technology and service respond to Europe´s challenge in securing RM in a sustainable way due to high reliance on imports, increasing consumption and decreasing quality and availability of resources, but also for new processes and technologies in processing that can potentially reshape the idea of what a resource is and secure supplies of RM for the future.
Advanced Materials: enablers for disruptive innovation
Lightweight design, additive manufacturing, design of new alloys
Day 2 - 21 May 2019 - from 14:30 to 18:00 - Auditorium
Radical innovation in industries such as the automotive, and in other areas such as energy production and storage, are enabled by the introduction of new and innovative materials, allowing enhanced electronic, optical and mechanical properties, with improved performance and new functionalities. New materials development can also have an important impact in the substitution so-called critical raw materials (http://ec.europa.eu/growth/sectors/raw-materials/specific-interest/critical_en) or toxic substances utilised in the process industry or in consumer’s products.
The session will give some highlights on a number of promising materials technologies such as additive manufacturing, enabling complex materials shapes with improved mechanical properties, and allowing at the same time increased materials efficiency. Printed electronics will also be covered, with its potential to substitute many critical metals with low-costs, easily processable organic materials. Examples of how new magnetic materials are being developed for new application and how graphene holds promises for applications in energy storage will be illustrated.
Philippe Jacques, EMIRI
How Advanced Materials will help EU to reach a Carbon-neutral Society by 2050
Prof. Maurizio Vedani, Politecnico di Milano
Design of new alloys for metal additive manufacturing
Despite the large research and industrial interest on metal additive manufacturing (AM), few specific materials are available on the market for processes such as Selective Laser Melting, Electron Beam Melting, Directed Energy Deposition.
Al alloys currently used for AM mostly derive from traditional cast alloys, generally featuring poor strength, limited ductility and moderate response to thermal treatments (aging response). However, the large amount of structural parts of potential interest for AM would require a much wider and differentiated range of high-strength Al alloys.
A similar situation also holds for Fe-based alloys. Current popular steels used for AM of structural parts are limited to AISI 316L stainless steel, Maraging 18Ni300 steel and few others. These steels are selected among those already available on the market due to their good processability (often evaluated by their weldability) but they use a large amount of expensive and critical raw materials (e.g. Cr, Ni, Mo, Co) that are often not really needed.
A more rational approach is now required to defined smart strategies for the design of novel alloys specifically dedicated to additive manufacturing processes. A more careful selection of alloying elements should be made and compositions, as well as post-process thermal treatments, could be specifically developed to better exploit the peculiar solidification conditions experienced by AM materials.
Taavi Madiberk, Skeleton Technologies
From Sustainable Raw Materials to Solutions Fighting Climate Change
Skeleton Technologies is fighting the biggest challenge our society faces: climate change. In this fight, raw materials carry a special significance. Firstly, we use raw materials that are sustainable and sourced from Europe. Secondly, we have risen up the value chain to use these raw materials to provide real solutions to fight climate change.
Fabrice Domingues Dos Santos, ARKEMA France
Supersmart : Scale-up of smart materials for printed & organic electronics
In day to day products, including labels and packaging, there is a rising consumer demand for smart products, that is to say objects able to be part of a digital ecosystem. Embedding sensors and communications technologies while minimizing the environmental impact of these smart products is a key challenge for the future. The major way of achieving this is to work on the base materials of the electronics components to be embedded in, by providing organic materials instead of rare and toxic inorganic ones when applicable. That’s the objective of the SUPERSMART project which will enable the direct printing on paper of sensors, displays and electronics instead of bulk conventional electronics devices. It will make it easy the recyclability of such smart products. Lead by Arkema, a world-wide chemical actor, together with Arjowiggins, providing technical papers for printed electronics, leading technical organizations (CEA, Fraunhofer Institute, Joanneum Research), first-class universities (University de Bordeaux and Lisbon) and innovative SMEs (Luquet & Duranton), the SUPERSMART project aims at scaling up printable smart materials for the smart and recyclable products of the future.
Prof. Olivier Gutfleish, TU Darmstadt
Magnetic refrigeration: from fundamentals to a practical cooling alternative
Magnetic materials are key components in energy technologies, robotics, sensors and information technology. Magnets are inseparable from our everyday life. “Green” energy technologies such as wind turbines, electro-mobility and solid state cooling, rely on high performance magnetic materials which have to be available in bulk quantities, at low-cost and with tailored magnetic hysteresis.
Gas-vapour compression technology for refrigeration, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning has remained unchallenged for more than 120 years. Energy spent for domestic cooling is expected to outreach that for heating worldwide over the course of the twenty-first century. There is a huge demand for a smarter, more flexible and more efficient cooling technology. Magnetic refrigeration could be that alternative working without gas-based refrigerants.
The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) is the reversible temperature change of a magnetic material upon application and removal of a magnetic field. I will introduce the basics of the MCE, illustrate its great potential in magnetic refrigeration, will derive the required materials´ attributes of a magnetic heat exchanger, give guidelines for material selection and will look into the challenges of developing an efficicient prototype. I will address the criticality of strategic metals in magnetic cooling, their potential for substitution and how the ecological footprint of the magnetic fridge can be improved by using recycled magnets.
Materials for Future Mobility
Challenges and solutions for raw materials and advanced materials for future mobility
Day 1 - 21 May 2019 - from 15:30 to 18:00 - Auditorium
The mobility revolution has a significant impact on the extraction, processing, use, and recycling of materials. In fact, the transition to a sustainable mobility is enabled by new concepts and smart material use, that is, primarily for the vehicles’ structural parts, the powertrain as well as for advanced communication technologies (autonomous driving).
The session provides specific examples of key raw materials and advanced materials challenges and solutions in the shift to electrification and lightweight design with the ultimate goal to approach a cost efficient and sustainable zero emission mobility. In a first part, the presentations focus on composites and aluminium alloys as alternative lightweight materials in mobility applications. The second part is dedicated to battery electrification, that is, how latest technology is deployed in the specific field of mobility underground (in advanced mining machinery), how lithium as a key battery raw material can be extracted and processed in Europe, and how advanced materials and processing of those are enabling the next generation of batteries, i.e., solid state batteries.
Daniele Pullini, FIAT Research Centre
Materials challeges for the automotive sector
Michel Glotin, Scientific Director, Arkema
Composite for Mobility Applications
Claudio Mus, R&D Director, Endurance Overseas
E-Mobility: threat or new opportunities for aluminium?
Lightweight materials like aluminium are currently in high demand for an electric vehicle as low weight equals longer range or a reduction of the battery cost .
Nevertheless the fast developing BEV (Battery Electric Vehicle) segment could lead to an overcapacity in the aluminium casting industry around 2020 – 2025 if production technologies will not evolve to meet needs for larger components with high level of function integration.
Aluminium foundries supplying the ICE powertrain together with peripheral components such as pump housings are in the danger zone. To cope with the additional demand HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle) & PHEV ( Plug In Hybrid Electeric Vehicle ) cast aluminum components, some capacity has being recently added in European foundries, some of which will become shortly obsolete as the BEV share increases.
As a matter of fact BEV vehicles contain much less cast aluminum in the powertrain area compared to ICE, HEV and PHEV . All casting technologies, successfully producing engine components like cylinder block , cylinder head, oilpan , turbochargers , manifolds , and the few needed BEV components (i.e. battery housing & electric engine rotors) require larger size HPDC (High Pressure Die Casting ) machines ( in the range of 4200 tons ) and evolved casting process technologies.
An overview on alloys and combined foundry technologies, suitable to cope with the E-mobility will be given.
Maria Åstrand, Northvolt
A European Lithium refinery producing high grade Lithium for batteries – why, how and what)
A number of global political, environmental and technological trends are driving the demand towards a rapid increase in Lithium-ion batteries, turning it to a strategically important domain for both industry and society. The increase in demand puts pressure on raw material supply and processing. The present project aims at validating the technological, economical, legal and social viability of a novel method to produce lithium hydroxide. The objective is to establish a federated European Lithium refinery producing high grade Lithium for battery production within a few years.
Guillame Claude, CEA
Battery activity : Advanced Li metal electrodes
Lithium metal is the most promising negative electrode material for high energy post Li-ion technologies, like Lithium Metal Polymer (LMP®) and Lithium/Sulfur (Li/S) batteries. Today, BlueSolutions already produces LMP® cells for both EV and stationary applications. The main goal of ALIM project is to support the commercialization of Critical Raw Materials (CRM)-free innovative battery solutions, by mastering the production process of extra-thin lithium electrodes and boosting the performances of current BlueSolutions LMP® cells. For this purpose, the consortium will benefit from the strong background of Bühler Redex in rolling mills and high precisions applications, as well as from the experience of CEA and Uppsala University in the field of lithium batteries and their characterization.
Resource Efficiency in Cities
Urban and landfill mining, materials flow analysis, circular economy
Day 2 - 21 May 2019 - from 14:30 to 17:00 - Room Aquamarin
Forecast by the United Nations estimate that by 2030 about 5 billion people will live in cities, and by 2050 two thirds of the global population will live in urban areas. As the attractiveness of cities as places of opportunity for a higher quality of life increases, so does also the materials intensity connected to the population increase in urban areas. Materials flows optimisation in cities is crucial to aim for the shift from a linear to a circular economy model. A concerted use of policies, social innovation, new business models, education, new design approaches and technologies is the key to achieve resource efficiency in cities.
The session will provide an overview of challenges to be addressed to increase resource efficiency in cities. Moreover, it will be shown how policies, education, innovation and technologies can facilitate the efficient recovery of valuable materials, for example in consumers electronics products.
Nikolai Jacobi, ICLEI
From cascadic use to green infrastructure - An urban perspective to circular development
Cities take-up a manifold role in developing a circular economy: as platform, curator and investor. In this, it is crucial to understand the societal functions of urban material- and energy flows to inform policies that are socio-ecologically centered. This contribution outlines an approach to urban circular development and provides good examples.
Prof. Markus Reuter, HZDR
Process metallurgy and systems in circular city design – the challenges
Realising the circular economy is faced with some significant challenges. Process metallurgy and its infrastructure play key roles at the heart of making the circular economy work. The enabling role of process metallurgy within the circular economy and circular cities will be discussed, touching also on product and system design.
Yiannis Pontikes, KU Leuven
RECOVER: an example of KIC project that is proposing to use (industrial) waste (red muds) to make building materials
Martin Schlummer, Fraunhofer
Recycling of display appliances
DISPLAY is a EIT raw material upscaling project and aims at the recovery of valuable raw materials from end of life display devices and printed circuit boards. State of the art recycling is currently performed in smelting processes as the devices are too small for manual recycling methods or my cause safety issues in shredder based technologies due to enclosed Li ion batteries. Through a novel combination of separation techniques including electrohydraulic fragmentation (EHF) and automated sorting it is possible to separate display appliances into different fractions like displays, batteries and metals. These fractions are then processed by further downstream recycling technologies. In addition a polymer rich fraction is generated and treated with the CreaSolv® Process, which is a solvent based recycling process for mixed polymer waste capable of recovering pure polymers from mixed plastic waste. By this process we successfully recover high quality PC/ABS from end of life display devices.
Establishing of suitable process chains is supported by business models to ensure both, technical and economic feasibility. However, sourcing of waste display appliances is a main issue of the DISPLAY project, as these appliances are often supplied in the second hand market or wasted outside official collection schemes of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE).
Miha Zakotnik, Urban Mining Company
The Future of Waste NdFeB Rare Earth Permanent Magnets and their Role in a Circular Economy
There is a global increase in demand for NdFeB magnets, and therefore for rare earths. This puts additional stress in their available supply chain, as we are also moving towards a more circular and greener economy.
Implemented by UMC, magnet-to-magnet (M2M®) recycling and grain boundary engineering (GBE®) processes have been scaled-up and expand technical limitations of traditional sintered neo manufacturing. These processes have measurable impact on the environment and address practicability when it comes to implementation in real life. Currently, UMC’s magnet reuse process is gaining attention and is regarded as an alternative production route for the manufacture of either fully dense sintered NdFeB magnets or bonded NdFeB magnets.
To manufacture recycled NdFeB magnets via the M2M® process, using end-of-life ('waste') NdFeB as a feedstock material, is challenging. By using a unique processing route, recycled magnets are up-cycled to new magnets with increased magnetic performance and microstructures. This was demonstrated when comparing two nearly identical electric motors, one containing recycled NdFeB magnets produced via the magnet-to-magnet processing, and the other containing conventional NdFeB magnets made from virgin elements. UMC has demonstrated the viability of the NdFeB magnet-to-magnet recycling and reusing technology in real world applications on a mass production scale.